Judea rebels against the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus, after he murders over 50,000 of his own citizens.
Alexander Jannaeus dies. His widow, Salome Alexandra, becomes ruler of Judea.
Salome Alexandra appoints her son Hyrcanus II as religious administrator, and her second son, Aristobolus II, as a regional governor outside Jerusalem.
(Incidentally, this is when Spartacus leads the slave revolt, crushed by Pompey and Crassus, but it does not really signify for this book).
Hillel is born.
Hyrcanus II becomes the ruler of Judea. Fights civil war with his brother, Aristobolus II. Aristobolus wins.
Salome Alexandra dies.
Aristobolus II assumes power. Under his rule, the Sadducees party assumes political power in Jerusalem.
Pompey conquers Judea and invades Syria.
Antipater marries a daughter of a nobleman from Petra, in southwestern Jordan, at that time the capital of the Nabatean kingdom.
Pompey annexes Syria and captures Jerusalem.
Antipater supports Pompey’s campaign, and begins a long relationship with Rome.
Hyrcanus II resumes the civil war with his brother Aristobolus II. Aristobolus is captured and led to Rome.
Pompey installs Hyrcanus II as king, with Antipater as powerful advisor.
Julius Caesar rises in power.
First Triumvirate is created: Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar.
Caesar is appointed as governor of Gaul.
Herod meets Mark Antony and they become close friends.
Hillel comes to Judea for the first time.
Caesar conquers Northern Gaul. He fails in his invasion of Britain.
Caesar succeeds in his second invasion of Britain.
Crassus is killed at the battle of Carrhae with the Parthians.
Pompey is appointed sole consul.
Caesar crushes the Gauls’ revolt.
Cleopatra VII and her brother Ptolemy XIII become joint rulers in Egypt.
Caesar completes the conquest of Gaul.
Pompey’s supporters try to stop Caesar from assuming consulship.
Caesar is commanded by the Senate to give up his command in Gaul.
Defying the Senate, Caesar crosses the Rubicon into Italy.
Civil war begins.
Pompey escapes to Greece.
Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalia, Greece.
Yochanan ben Zakkai is born.
Cleopatra has Pompey murdered.
Caesar assists Cleopatra’s various campaigns.
Cleopatra becomes Caesar’s mistress.
Caesar appoints Antipater procurator of Judea, and makes him and his family Roman citizens.
Herod, Antipater’s son, becomes the governor of Galilee.
Alexander II, the son of Aristobolus II, rebels against Rome. Antipater defeats him with the help of Rome.
The brothers Bnei Bateyra replace Shemaya and Avtalion as sages.
Hyrcanus tries to bring Herod to trial. Herod escapes.
Cleopatra and Caesar go to Rome together, creating a scandal.
Caesar crushes the Tenth Legion revolt.
Caesar defeats Sextus, Pompey’s son, in Africa.
Africa becomes a Roman Province.
Caesar becomes dictator of Rome.
Caesar introduces the Julian calendar.
Caesar defeats Sextus in Spain.
Gaius Octavius (Octavian, later Augustus) is adopted by his uncle, Caesar, as his heir.
Caesar is assassinated by a group headed by Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius Longinus.
Mark Antony seizes power.
Political clashes occur between Octavian and Antony.
Second Triumvirate is created: Octavian, Antony, and Marcus Lepidus.
Caesar is declared a god. A temple is erected in the Forum where he was murdered.
Antigonus, a second son of Aristobolus, rebels with the help of Parthia. Hyrcanus is removed to Babylonia.
The Parthians invade Judea, civil war breaks, and Herod flees to Rome.
The Roman Senate declares Herod king of Judea, and gives him an army to fight back.
Antony marries Octavia, Octavian’s sister.
The triumvirate is renewed for five years.
Herod the Great assumes the kingship of Judea.
Antony, while married to Octavia, creates a furor by marrying Cleopatra in Egypt.
Herod divorces his wife, Doris, and sends her with their son away from his court.
Herod marries Mariamne, a Hasmonean princess famous for her great beauty. He hopes to end his feud with the Hasmonean family.
Octavian defeats Pompey’s fleet.
Cleopatra uses her considerable influence to get a large portion of Herod’s land.
Hillel returns to Judea from his stay in Babylon.
Antony divorces Octavia.
Octavian declares war on Cleopatra and Antony.
Herod supports his friend Mark Antony.
Battle of Actium. Octavian’s fleet defeats the fleets of Cleopatra and Antony.
Cleopatra and Antony commit suicide.
Octavian declares Egypt a Roman Province.
The Senate gives Octavian supreme power, and the title of Augustus.
Augustus starts a campaign in Spain, attempting to subdue rebelling tribes.
After Antony’s final defeat in Actium, Herod visits Augustus and confesses that he had supported Antony.
Augustus, believing that despite his loyalty to Antony, Herod is most suited to rule Judea, returns all the land Cleopatra stole, and reconfirms him as king.
Augustus gives Herod the oversight of the copper mines in Cyprus, with half share in the profits.
Augustus adds parts of Jordan, Lebanon and Syria to Herod’s kingdom.
Augustus resigns the consulship and adopts the unofficial title of princeps, chief of the republic.
Herod begins the rebuilding of the Second Temple.
The Roman Republic is extended to the upper Danube.
Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar, Augustus’ stepson, crushes the revolt in Pannonia.
Herod the Great completes the rebuilding of the Second Temple.
Herod the Great dies.
The kingdom is divided among Herod’s sons: Herod Archaelaus, Herod Antipas, and Philip.
This is probably the birth year of Jesus of Nazareth.
Herod Archaelaus is deposed, and Rome appoints procurators to govern Judea.
?? 10 C.E.
The Jews request Rome to remove Archaelaus on charges of extreme cruelty.
Tiberius becomes emperor of Rome.